Biology Examination Practical Questions and Answers: If you know you want to ace your biology WAEC  practical examination then you are just on the right page.

This page contains all the possible biology exam questions that you should expect, and you should also know that for you to come out with flying colours in your Biology exam, then you need to carefully study these biology Practical Questions and Answers.

We will also be sharing with you the materials that will be needed for the WAEC Biology Practical, the practical diagrams, practical exam past questions, and frequent questions students ask.

In this practical, you should know that every single step of the practice has a mark. Make sure you do not skip any step or make any mistakes while reporting your practical results and also make sure you label the left side of your diagram neatly.


In this examination you will be expected to carry out the experiment and report what you observed, below are some of the WAEC Biology practical past questions.

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Listed Below is the 2022 Waec Biology Practical Specimen

Specimen A – Weevil-damaged been seed

Specimen B – Viable been seed


Specimen C – Dried Maize grain soaked in water overnight

Specimen D – Soldier termite (dead)

Specimen E – Honeybee (dead)

Specimen F – Muddy water ( in a test tube)

Specimen G – Lower jaw  of a herbivore with teeth intact

Specimen H: Head of domestic fowl (complete)

Specimen J: Quill Feather

Specimen K: Leg of domestic fowl (complete)

Specimen L: Head of Duck (complete)


Specimen H: Head of domestic fowl (complete) and Specimen L: Head of Duck (complete)

The phylum of Specimen H and L is Chordata and the class of Specimen and L is Aves

A (i)   Name the habitats of each of specimens H and L.

ANSWER: Specimen H (Head of a domestic fowl) are common in environments like savannas, woodlands, desert, plains, semidesert, dry grasslands and scrubs.

Specimen L (Head of a duck) are found in ponds, lakes, rivers, ocean, wetlands, and marshes reason is that they are mostly aquatic birds and can also be found in seawater and fresh water.

Mode of Feeding of Specimen H and L

Specimen ‘H’ and ‘L’ are omnivorous animals they feed on fruit, fish, grass, aquatic plants, insects, crustaceans and other kinds of foods.

(ii)  Name the class to which each specimens H and L belong.             

Specimen H and L  belongs to Aves

(iii) Observable features that adapt specimen L to its habitat

  • The duck pecten (comb-like structure) in the edge of their beaks is adapted or helps to hold slippery food and to preen feathers.
  • Their webbed feet help them to push against water and help them swim.
  • The feathers have an oily coating which prevents water from settling and also helps them to stay dry and also keep them warm.
  • Their beaks are flat so as to help them in searching for insect larvae, pulling worms, and pulling water weeds out of the mud.

(iv) Behavior Features of Specimen L to its Habitat

  • Ducks live their environment during the winter months in a place that is warmer.
  • They make different types of call sounds, including whistling, grunting, cooing and yodelling.
  • Ducks keep themselves clean by putting their heads and putting their bills into their body.
  • Dabbling ducks take their food on land or on the surface of the water, or by reaching as deep as they can without completely submerging. Sea ducks and diving ducks, on the other hand, feed by diving deep underwater.

Reproduction of Specimen L

Sexual Reproduction and they lay eggs. The eggs usually hatch about 28-35 days after the beginning of incubation.

Drawing Diagram of Specimen L

Drawing Diagram of Specimen L 'Duck'

2022 Waec Biology practical specimen Answer

Specimen L head of duck sketch

Title (DV)

Quality (Q)

Clarity of lines (CL)

Neatness of labels (NL)

Correct Size (SZ) 8cm-10cm

Magnification (Mg)    (x1 – 1½)

Observable features that adapt specimen H to its habitat

The present comb, beak, wattles, ears, earlobes, eyes, eye rings

Three observable similarities between specimens H and L.

Present of  beak

The presence of eyes and nostril

Presence of feathers

Three observable differences between specimens H and L

Specimen H

  • Absent of wattles
  • Present of crown
  • They are found in wetlands, marshes, ponds, rivers, lakes and oceans because they are mostly aquatic birds, and may be found in both fresh water and seawater
  • Present of bean

Specimen L

  • Common environments include savannas, woodlands, desert, plains, semidesert, dry grasslands and scrubs.
  • Present of wattles
  • Absent of bean
  • Present of Comb

4ci.Identify the sex of Specimen H and L


(ii)  State one reason for the answer in 4(c)(i).

Presence of comb and crown

(d)  Drawing Diagram of Specimen H

Domestic Fowl diagram

                                         Title: Diagram of Specimen H

Specimen J: Quill Feather

Kingdom and Class of the organism from which specimen J/quill feather could be obtained
Kingdom                 Class
Animalia                    Aves

(ii) Location on the body of organism from which specimen H/quill feather could be obtained

It can be obtained from Wing(s)/tail(s)

(iii) Example of organisms from which specimen J/quill feather could be obtained

Pigeon, domestic fowl, cock, hen, dove, vulture, ostrich, gull, duck, any correctly named bird.

(iv) Functions of specimens J to the organisms that possess them

Sexual/courtship display;
Gives shape

(vi) observable Features that Adapt Specimen J to Its Habitat

Specimen J

Strong and firm; to beat against air/wind/protection/insulation;
Hollow shaft/rachis/light weight; for buoyancy;
Interlocking barbules/closely packed barbs; for upthrust;
Color; for camouflage/courtship display/identification;
Glossy surface; for waterproof.   other features are below

  •  Presence of Barbs
  • Presence of vanes
  • Absence of vein
  • Presence of shaft/ rachis
  • Absence of Midrib
  • Absence of petiole
  • Smaller in size
  • Absence of sharp margin
  • Non-green in colour
  • Presence of  Barbules
  • Presence of calamus
  • Presence of inferior/ superior umbilicus
  • Presence of aftershaft
  • Barbs are diagonal
  • Blunt end
  • Short barb(s)

Specimen D – Soldier termite (dead)

i)  What Kingdom and Class of organisms do specimens  D and E

Specimen D – Soldier termite (dead)

Kingdom          Class           Phylum

Animalia          Insecta      Arthropoda

ii) Mode of the feeding of Specimen D

Their mode of feeding is by Biting and Chewing because they possess strong mandible and maxillae (mouth part) which helps them to bite and chew plant parts.

iii) Economics Important of Specimen D

  • They serve as food to humans or are fed to livestocks.
  • They make vegetables and fruits unmarketable and unattractive.
  • they increase the cost of production during the course of controlling them.
  • They destroy woods in homes during their biting and chewing activities.
  • They serve as decomposers and recyclers of tropical and subtropical dead wood.
  • They do not carry disease and do not bother buildings because there is not enough water in the wood.

 Prevention and Control of Specimen D

  1. Get rid of wood in contact with the ground.
  2. Replace any damaged and damped wood on the outside of your home.
  3. Never store firewood or wood debris against foundations or inside crawlspaces.

iv) Life Cycle of Specimen D

The life cycle of specimen D is a  life cycle which is from egg to nymph and to adult or it’s an incomplete metamorphosis.

Diagram of Specimen /Termite

Specimen Termite

Specimen Termite

v) Name of the habitats of Specimen D

Specimen D usually live in damp, dying wood or in houses with leaking plumbing that keeps the wood wet.

vi) Observable Features of Specimen D that Adapt Specimen D to Its Habitat

–       Head bears a pair of jointed antennae;
–       Body up of head, thorax and abdomen/3 – body division;
–       Body covered with exoskeleton made of chitin;
–       Presence of jointed appendages;
–       Thorax made up of 3 segments/pro-thorax and meta-thorax;
–       Thorax bears one or two pairs of wings;
–       3 pairs of jointed legs;
–       Abdomen is segmented;
–       Presence of spiracles on the abdomen.

 Structural differences between Queen Termite & Soldier Termite
  A/Queen    B/Soldier
–      Small head; –  Large head;
–      Distended/large abdomen;  –   Small abdomen;
–      Eye present. –    Eye absent
  – Conspicuous spiracles; –    No spiracles  seen/invisible  spiracle/spiracles absent (in the diagram)
–  Patches of hardened cuticle present;   –    Patches of hardened cuticle absent;
  Mandible absent; –     Presence of powerful mandibles;

Observable adaptive features of Queen Termite
–      Presence of eye; to see
–      Large/distended abdomen; to carry many eggs

Soldier Termite

  •  Presence of antenna; to detect intruder/changes in the termitarium;
  • Large/powerful mandibles; for defence/offence.

Specimen E – Honeybee (dead)

i)  What Kingdom and Class of organisms do specimens E

Kingdom          Class           Phylum

Animalia          Insecta       Arthropoda

ii) Mode of Feeding of Specimen E

The mouthparts of Specimen E are chewing and lapping type.

iii) Life Cycle of Specimen E

The life cycle of specimen E is a complete metamorphosis stage or life cycle  – Which is from egg to Larvae to pupa to Adult

iv) Name of the habitats of Specimen E

Live in woodlands, orchards,  gardens meadows and other areas where flowering plants are abundant.

vi) Economics importance of Specimen E

  1. The profits of farmers are reduced.
  2. They reduce the quality of products either in the store or in the field.
  3. They generally reduce the yield of crops.
  4. They can also cause the total death of crop plants.
  5. Some are carriers or vectors of diseases.

Diagram of Specimen E/Honeybee

Biology practical questions and answer

iv) Observable Features of Specimen E

  • They have three main body parts: head, thorax, and abdomen.
  • They have a pair of antennae that are attached to their head.
  • They have a hard outer shell called an exoskeleton.
  • They have two pairs of wings.
  • They have three pairs of legs used for walking.

Observable Features of Specimen E that Adapt Specimen E to Its Habitat

  • Head location of the eye, brain, where the antennae attach.
  • Present weak mandibles and outer mouth parts that help protect the proboscis.
  • Presence of weak proboscis Tube-like mouth part used to suck up fluids.
  • closed Ocelli is one of two types of insect eyes used to detect motion.
  • Dead Eye (Compound) is made of many light detectors called OMMATIDA.
  • Presence of dead antenna segmented feelers that detect airborne scents and currents.
  • Thorax midsection where the six (6) legs and wings are attached.
  • Absent of fore wings farthest from the head.
  • Forelegs legs closest to the head.

Prevention and Control Specimen E

  • By Cultural control
  • By Physical control
  • By Biological control

(ii)  State three similarities between specimens D and E

  • Both have the presence of an outer shell called an EXOSKELETON.
  • They have three main body parts: head, thorax, and abdomen.
  • They have a pair of antennae that are attached to their head.
  • They have two pairs of wings.
  • They have three pairs of legs used for walking.

(iii)  State two differences between specimens D and E   (3 marks )

Specimen D

  • The life cycle of specimen D is an incomplete metamorphosis stage
  • Their mode of feeding is Biting and Chewing

Specimen E

  • The life cycle of specimen E is a complete metamorphosis stage
  • Their mode chewing and lapping type.

Specimen G – Lower jaw  of a herbivore with teeth intact

What teeth does Specimen G have?
Specimen G have sharp incisors and wider flatter molars.

Location of Specimen G/Lower jaw  of a herbivore with teeth intact
specimen G is located at the skull

Mode Of Feeding of Specimen G
Specimen G are Herbivores – they eat plants and have sharp incisors and wider flatter molars. Specimen G have teeth which are shaped to squash and grind plants.

Example of an organism from which specimen G/Lower jaw of a herbivore with teeth intact
Examples of specimen G include Goat, sheep, cow, horse, deer, tortoise, iguanas, some birds, koalas, caterpillars, grasshoppers, crickets etc.

Classification of Specimen G according to What they eat
Specimen G can be classified into nectar-eaters (Insectivores), seed-eaters (granivores), fruit-eaters (frugivores), and leaf-eaters (folivores)

How many teeth do Specimen G have?
They have three teeth which are Incisor, Molar and premolar

Dental Formula of Specimen G
The dental formula for a rabbit is I2/1, C0/0, P3/2, and M3/3= 28.

The dental formula of herbivores, like cattle that feed on fodder, is 2 x ( 033 / 433 ) = 32

Diagram of Specimen G

Biology practical questions and answer

Characteristics of Specimen G

  • They eat their cuds. This helps them in absorbing the nutrients completely from any kind of food that is hard to chew. Examples include cows and camels.

  • They do not need to chew on their food at all. Their mouths are shaped in the form of a straw to help them suck nectar from flowers. Examples include moths and butterflies.

  • Sharp incisor-like front teeth are present in certain herbivores for them to gnaw and break down certain food items.

  • They can move their jaws in a sideward motion, which helps them to eat.

Observable Features of Specimen G that Adapt Specimen G to Its Habitat

Special Teeth

They have Flat-Molars: It is used to grind leaves, shoots, and twigs.

Premolars: It is used for chewing food, while their front teeth help them tear larger plants apart, by tugging into them.

Large Incisors: They are used in clipping or tearing vegetation, but they may only occur on the lower jaw.

Alkaline Saliva

Herbivores have a slow indigestion process due to the presence of alkaline in their saliva while carnivores have acidic saliva which helps them to start digestion as soon as the food is ingested. Plants on which herbivores feed on passes through a preparatory process that makes them easy to digest.

2021 past questions

Specimen A     –           twig of the mango plant.
Specimen B     –           twig of Ixora plant.
Specimen C     –           leaf of Hibiscus plant.
Specimen D     –           hibiscus flower.
Specimen E     –           green leafy vegetable.
Specimen F     –           a piece of freshly cut beef.
Specimen G    –           worker bee (wet preserved).
Specimen H     –           soldier termite (wet preserved).
Specimen K    –           adult cockroach (wet preserved).
Specimen L     –           nymph of cockroach (wet preserved).
Specimen M    –           young toad (freshly preserved).
Specimen N     –          the scale of bony fish.
Specimen P     –           freshly preserved mammalian skin preferably of goat or ram with hair/fur measuring at   least 4 cm by 4 cm placed in a petri dish.
Specimen S                a small amount of garden soil in a petri dish.
Specimen T               orange/lemon/lime/citrus fruit
Specimen V              tomato fruit.
Specimen W             cassava tuber.
Specimen Xi              stem of young cassava plant measuring at least 10cm in length.
Specimen Xii             stem of young cassava plant measuring at least 10cm in length as in Xi.

Study specimens A and B carefully and use them to answer questions  1(a) to 1(e).

(a)  Classify specimen B into its Division and Class.

(b) (i)  State the types of leaf arrangements in specimens A and B.
      (ii) Name the leaf shape of specimens A and B.

(c) (i)   State the type of leaf margin in specimen A.
(ii) State the types of venation found in the leaves of specimens A and B.                                                                                                                                                                           
(d) (i)   List three observable similarities found in specimens A and B.
(ii)  In a tabular form, state four observable differences between specimens A and B.                                 

(e)  Make a drawing 8 cm – 10cm long of the leaf of specimen A and label fully.


Some of the candidates were not able to classify the B/twig of Ixora plant into its division and class and many of the students that tried were not able to spell it correctly. Most candidates could not answer (b) (i) and (ii),(c) (i)and (ii) accurately.

some of the candidates are not able to state observable similarities between specimens A and B properly. just a few of the candidate’s drawings were good in question 1(e).

Most of the students drew without putting the title of the diagram, or the magnification and did not label correctly.


(1) (a) (i) Division

(ii) Class

(b) (i) Types of leaf arrangements
Specimen A     –           Alternate/Spiral
Specimen B     –           Decussate/Opposite

(ii) Leaf shape
Specimen A     –           Lanceolate/Sword-like
Specimen B     –           Oval/Ovate

(c) (i) Type of leaf margin of specimen A
(ii) Types of venation found in Specimens and B
Specimen A     –   Net/reticulate

Specimen B     –   Net/reticulate

(d) (i) Observable similarities between Specimens A and B

      • Leaves have leaf stalk/petiole/petiolate.
      • Leaf stalk/petiole swollen at the base.
      • Leaves contain chlorophyll/are green in colour.
      • Leaves have entire/smooth margins.
      • Leaves have net/reticulate venation.
      • Leaves have pointed apex.
      • Leaves have prominent midrib.
      • Both leaves are simple.

(ii) Observable differences between Specimens A and B

Specimen A (mango) Specimen B (Ixora)
  • Petiole/leaf stalk is long petiole
Petiole/leaf stalk is short
  • Leaves have elongated apex/acuminate leaves
Leaves have short apex/acute
  • Leaves have a narrow lamina/leaf blade leaves leaves
Leaves have a broad lamina/leaf blade
  • Spiral/alternate leaf arrangement
Decussate/ opposite leaf arrangement
  • Leaves are bigger 
Leaves are smaller

Penalty: minus (-) 1 mark for no tabulation.

(e) Drawing/Diagram of the leaf of specimen A
TL- Title: Diagram of a leaf

waec biology practical answers

NL- Neat Labels
CL- Clarity of Lines
Sz- Size (8-10cm)
Mg- Magnification (x0.2 – x0.5)/ (x1/5 – x½)

TA= Tapering Apex
NV=Net venation shown
MT= Midrib tapering to Apex
LS= Lanceolate Shape


  • Apex/tip
  • margin/edge
  • midrib/rachis/main vein
  • leaf blade/lamina
  • vein
  • petiole/leaf stalk.


Study specimens G and H carefully and use them to answer questions 2(a) to 2(c).

(a) (i)   Name the phylum of specimens G and H. [1 mark]

(ii)  State two reasons for the answer given in 2(a)(i)   [2 marks]

(b)  Name the structures on specimens G and H that are used for defence [2 marks]

(c) (i) State the habitat of each of specimens G and H.   [2 marks]
(ii) State two ways in which each of specimens G and are of economic importance. [4 marks]

Study specimens M, N and P carefully and use them to answer questions 2(d) to 2(e).

(d) (i) Name the Class of organisms to which each of specimens M, N, and P are associated.  [3 marks]
(ii)  State one function common to the specimens named in 2 (d) (i). [1 mark]

(iii) In a tabular form, state four observable differences between specimens and P. [4 marks]
(e) Explain three features of biological importance in specimen M. [6 marks]


  • (a) (i) Phylum of specimens G and is Arthropoda

NOTE: If two answers are given and one is wrong, mark both wrong.

(ii) Reasons

  • Presence of jointed legs/appendages;
  • Presence of chitinous exoskeleton;
  • Metamerically segmented;
  • Bilateral symmetry;
  • Have three body layers/triploblastic.

(b) Structures of specimens G and H used for defence
G         –           Sting/Ovipositor;
H         –           (Strong and powerful/biting) mandible/jaw.

(c) (i) Habitats of specimens G and H
G         –           (Bee) Hive
H         –           Termitarium/anthill/termite mound/nest/soil/old logs of trees/timber of wooden buildings.
(ii) Economic importance of Specimens G and H


  • Bee keeping is a source of employment/income
  • It pollinates flower
  • Produces wax
  • Produces honey
  • The sting causes pain/death


  • Enhances penetration of water into the soil/increases porosity.
  • Source of food/protein.
  • It destroys crops/plants.
  • Introduces vegetable/plant matter into the soil/increases humus contents.
  • Aids soil aeration through tunnelling.
  • It destroys wood/furniture/books.
  • The termitarium is used for a lawn tennis court.
  • Their mound/termitarium forms impediments to land use.

(d) (i) Class of organisms to which specimens MN and P belong

M        –           Aves
N         –           Osteichthyes
P          –           Mammalia

(ii) Common features of specimens MN and P
Protection of the organism (against mechanical injury/desiccation)

(iii) Observable differences between specimens M and P

Specimen M/Quill feather Specimen P/Mammalian skin with hair
 Presence of inferior umbilicus Absence of inferior umbilicus
 Presence of superior umbilicus Absence of superior umbilicus
 Presence of after shaft Absence of after shaft
Presence of shaft/rachis Absence of shaft/rachis
Presence of Quill/calamus
Presence of barbs
Absence of Quill/calamus
Absence of barbs
 Absence of hair/fur Presence of hair/fur
 Texture is hard when touched Texture is soft when touched
–Barbs are restricted to certain parts of the Quill Hairs/fur cover the whole surface of the specimen.

Penalty: minus 1 mark for no tabulation.

(e) Structures of biological importance in Specimen M
– Presence of Quill feather; serves as waterproof/protection/keeps the bird warm/insulation;
– vane is flat/broad; to provide surface area for flapping during flight/against desiccation;
– rachis/shaft which is centrally placed; to provide a point of attachment to barbs/strengthen the feather;
– barbs with hooks; interlock to form the vane;
– the overlapping arrangements of Quill feathers over the body of birds; allows smooth movement/little resistance in flight;
– colouration of the Quill feather; enhances courtship display/camouflage.



  • Make sure you study and learn how to draw and label diagrams accurately and neatly.
  • Study the biology theory that will be asked on the basis of your experiment in detail.
  • you should study and understand the syllabus properly so in each experiment you will know exactly what to do.
  • Make use of WAEC biology past questions and revise the practicals and other the concept and patterns of the exam.
  • Make sure each practical past question you study notes down the procedures or steps so that you get used to it.


WAEC biology specimen 2022

Group I

  • Specimen A – Weevil-damaged been seed
  • Specimen B – Viable been seed
  • Specimen C – Dried maize grain soaked in water overnight
  • Specimen D – Soldier termite (dead)
  • Specimen – Honeybee (dead)
  • Specimen F – Muddy water (in a test tube)
  • Specimen G – Lower jaw of a herbivore with teeth intact

Group II

  • Specimen H – Head of domestic fowl (complete)
  • Specimen J – Quill feather
  • Specimen K – Leg of domestic fowl ( complete)
  • Specimen L – Head of duck (complete)
  • Specimen M – Leg of duck (complete)

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